Tech Digest

The Difference Between Anti-Aging and True Regenerative Medicine, Part 1

Stay Up to Date!

Simply enter your email below and click SIGN UP!

From Bioscience Expert Patrick Cox - The Most Life-Changing Book You'll Read This Year - Click Here

April 9, 2018

Dear Reader,

For the last few weeks, I’ve been having a conversation with a friend and reader about the difference between geroprotection and induced tissue regeneration (iTR). Based on those conversations, it’s clear that I haven’t done a good job of differentiating these two concepts.

This week, I’m going to refocus on ITR, which is Dr. Michael West’s strategy for activating the embryonic gene pathways that lie dormant inside our cells. There is no more important area of science, and the technology ought to be more widely known.

If it works the way West and his scientific team believe it will, it means that any cellular damage caused by disease, trauma, or aging can be reversed. While this may seem like science fiction, the fundamental science is actually pretty simple.

From Inactive to Active and Vice Versa: The Changing States of Genes

The entire genome exists within the nucleus of almost every cell in our body. Our genomes contain vast amounts of information and instructions, but not all of it is active in every cell. For example, the genes that make and manage our skeletal structure are present but not operational in our eyes and vice versa.

The genome is divided into two sections, the euchromatin and the heterochromatin. The active genes in a cell are located in the loosely packed DNA of the euchromatin, where they are readily available to create proteins, which is their job. The inactive genes in a specific cell are usually part of the heterochromatin, where DNA is tightly and safely packed away.


However, in some situations, DNA may change states. Genes that are active may be silenced and packed away; inactive genes may be unpacked and activated.

The biggest transformations happen at different stages of cell development. For example, the active and inactive genes change when the zygote becomes an embryo. They change again when the embryo becomes a fetus, about eight weeks after conception.

Let’s focus on what happens when the cells of the fetus become, biologically speaking, adult cells. This process is very brief and wouldn’t be noticeable to someone watching an ultrasound scan—but the genetic transition from embryonic to adult status is profound.

Embryonic vs. Fetal/Adult Cells

For our purposes, the most important difference between the embryo and the fetus is how cells replicate. A new embryonic cell gets its instructions from the original genetic blueprint of that specific cell as it exists in the central genome.

This eliminates the chance that a mistake or injury is copied and passed on to future iterations. If an embryo is harmed by some sort of trauma, it will revert to the developmental blueprint and create new damage-free cells.

That’s not practical for adult organisms, though. Adult cells, including fetal cells, reproduce by copying the last version of the genome. If there’s an error, it is copied and passed on. From the cell’s point of view, this makes sense because it requires less time and energy.

For that reason, the developmental, embryonic genetic blueprints are safely packed away in the heterochromatin... but they are not entirely inaccessible.

Under certain conditions, cells can access the original embryonic blueprints. In fact, many animals maintain that ability throughout their lives.

Biogerontologist Valter Longo, director of the USC Longevity Institute, demonstrated that diabetic animals put on his fasting mimicking diet (FMD) can regrow pancreatic beta cells, which store and release insulin when needed. He believes the same process occurs in humans who follow the FMD.


Longo also showed that the immunosuppressant drug rapamycin accesses the same developmental pathways. Rapamycin is the most studied of the compounds that extend healthspans and reverse, at least temporarily, the symptoms of age in older mammals. These are called geroprotectors, and I’ll get to them next week.

What iTR Is All About

Today, we’re focusing on induced tissue regeneration (iTR), which is Michael West’s technology for fully accessing the embryonic blueprints that are silent in the genomes of adult cells.

West, who is the co-CEO of BioTime (*see disclosure below) and CEO of its subsidiary AgeX, has identified the gene that orders cells to change the way they replicate. When that order is given, cells stop drawing on the embryonic blueprint and start copying themselves. From that point forward, any errors in the cell are copied and duplicated.

It reminds me of Nine Inch Nails’ Copy of A. The first line of the song is, “I am just a copy of a copy of a copy.”

In a very real sense, this is true. All of our cells are copies of copies. And because each copy includes all previous genetic errors, copies diverge more and more from that perfect embryonic original as we age.

West used powerful, deep neural network AI to identify the switch that stops embryonic cell replication and starts adult cell copying. It is the Cytochrome c oxidase polypeptide 7A1 (COX7A1) gene, which isn’t located in the central nuclear genome.

Rather, it is found in the mitochondria, the bacteria-like organelles we inherit from our mothers. In the original zygote that ultimately became you, there were mitochondria that had been passed down unchanged through centuries and countless generations.


Though my father warned me never to simplify biological processes by comparing them to electronic devices, I tend to think of the central genome as our computer operating system. The OS, however, is useless until it is given power and its original instructions by the boot firmware.

Mitochondria are biological, nonvolatile firmware. They have barely a dozen protein-expressing genes, compared to tens of thousands in the central genome, but they have major advantages.

First, they are a collective organism that reproduces through fission, so they are in a sense immortal. The mitochondrial colony in your body has existed, with only occasional mutations, since the dawn of human life.

Despite having fewer genes, the mass of mitochondrial DNA is roughly equivalent to that found in the central genomes of our cells. We have a lot of mitochondria, and they communicate with one another and the central genome using chemical signals.

When the first copy of your genome was being created through a merger of your mother’s and father’s DNA, the mitochondria in that original ovum were alive and functioning normally. Without their biological energy and preexisting instruction set, the brand-new genome couldn’t develop.

West’s plan is to tap that ancient firmware, giving the genomic OS instructions to reactivate the developmental pathways that were shut down when the embryo became an adult. He’s done it in cells. The Salk Institute has demonstrated the theory in mice. A scientist from the Weizmann Institute in Israel has tapped the embryonic circuitry to cause damaged hearts in animals to heal themselves.

Fully developed, this strategy would allow doctors to turn on embryonic healing powers to restore any tissue or organ to its perfect, youthful state. We believe that in humans, tissues and organs treated with iTR would be equivalent to those found in a healthy 27- to 29-year-old.

Ultimately, of course, the goal would be to rejuvenate the entire body—though it’s yet to be determined if that process could be done in a single clinical procedure. It may be that the body would have to be regenerated in stages.

There are still a lot of other unanswered questions about iTR, of course. Perhaps the biggest is whether iTR will lengthen telomeres, the biological clock that determines maximum age. I suspect we’ll get the answer to that question within a year or two because AgeX, the company that owns the rights to the platform, is close to launching now.

If iTR doesn’t restore telomeres, we may be able to reset that clock using a geroprotector that specifically hits the telomerase pathway. Next week, I’ll talk more about geroprotectors.

(*Disclosure: The editors or principals of Mauldin Economics have a position in this security. They have no plans to sell their position at this time. There is an ethics policy in place that specifies subscribers must receive advance notice should the editors or principals intend to sell.)

Patrick Cox
Patrick Cox
Editor, Transformational Technology Alert

Mauldin Economics


Stay in the Loop on Life-Extending Research
with Patrick Cox's Tech Digest

Tech Digest

Your privacy is very important to us. Please review our Privacy Policy.


« Back to Articles

From Bioscience Expert Patrick Cox - The Most Life-Changing Book You'll Read This Year - Click Here

Discuss This


We welcome your comments. Please comply with our Community Rules.


Chet T

April 9, 8:46 p.m.

Thank you Patrick for trying to clear it up.  I’ve started a lot of conversations about aging theories, organ regeneration and telomeres and I’ve made a few observations.  People under 50 just don’t seem to care.  The subject bores them.  People over 70 don’t want to talk much either.  They seem to quickly conclude that it can’t happen fast enough to help them. The 50-70 group are interested but very skeptical.  It sounds like science fiction, it’s just too easy, but they’re expecting to see big diseases radically reduced, fascinated by the idea of regrowing your own organs from within and hopeful and expecting that their own healthspans will be extended. I also found that if you touch on the subject of telomeres and biological immortality you’re almost sure to lose their interest and any credibility you might have had and the conversation usually ends with some variation of the overpopulation problem. 
I’m a big believer in the notion that these technologies will keep people alive longer and that will explode the cost of SS but the savings on the medicare side will be so large as to completely offset and SS increase and maybe even allow for an SS raise.  We need to move to this new paradigm ASAP before the current paradigm bankrupts the system.  We need to see something big to change some minds.  I think skin regeneration might be the biggest bang for the buck.  Can you imagine Michael West on stage a year from now introducing Mick Jagger to the crowd with Mick sporting his 30 year old face and hands?  That would get this movement moving at warp speed.  Just a thought.

Use of this content, the Mauldin Economics website, and related sites and applications is provided under the Mauldin Economics Terms & Conditions of Use.

Unauthorized Disclosure Prohibited

The information provided in this publication is private, privileged, and confidential information, licensed for your sole individual use as a subscriber. Mauldin Economics reserves all rights to the content of this publication and related materials. Forwarding, copying, disseminating, or distributing this report in whole or in part, including substantial quotation of any portion the publication or any release of specific investment recommendations, is strictly prohibited.
Participation in such activity is grounds for immediate termination of all subscriptions of registered subscribers deemed to be involved at Mauldin Economics’ sole discretion, may violate the copyright laws of the United States, and may subject the violator to legal prosecution. Mauldin Economics reserves the right to monitor the use of this publication without disclosure by any electronic means it deems necessary and may change those means without notice at any time. If you have received this publication and are not the intended subscriber, please contact


The Mauldin Economics website, Thoughts from the Frontline, The Weekly Profit, The 10th Man, Connecting the Dots, Transformational Technology Digest, Over My Shoulder, Yield Shark, Transformational Technology Alert, Rational Bear, Street Freak, ETF 20/20, In the Money, and Mauldin Economics VIP are published by Mauldin Economics, LLC Information contained in such publications is obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but its accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The information contained in such publications is not intended to constitute individual investment advice and is not designed to meet your personal financial situation. The opinions expressed in such publications are those of the publisher and are subject to change without notice. The information in such publications may become outdated and there is no obligation to update any such information. You are advised to discuss with your financial advisers your investment options and whether any investment is suitable for your specific needs prior to making any investments.
John Mauldin, Mauldin Economics, LLC and other entities in which he has an interest, employees, officers, family, and associates may from time to time have positions in the securities or commodities covered in these publications or web site. Corporate policies are in effect that attempt to avoid potential conflicts of interest and resolve conflicts of interest that do arise in a timely fashion.
Mauldin Economics, LLC reserves the right to cancel any subscription at any time, and if it does so it will promptly refund to the subscriber the amount of the subscription payment previously received relating to the remaining subscription period. Cancellation of a subscription may result from any unauthorized use or reproduction or rebroadcast of any Mauldin Economics publication or website, any infringement or misappropriation of Mauldin Economics, LLC’s proprietary rights, or any other reason determined in the sole discretion of Mauldin Economics, LLC.

Affiliate Notice

Mauldin Economics has affiliate agreements in place that may include fee sharing. If you have a website or newsletter and would like to be considered for inclusion in the Mauldin Economics affiliate program, please go to Likewise, from time to time Mauldin Economics may engage in affiliate programs offered by other companies, though corporate policy firmly dictates that such agreements will have no influence on any product or service recommendations, nor alter the pricing that would otherwise be available in absence of such an agreement. As always, it is important that you do your own due diligence before transacting any business with any firm, for any product or service.

© Copyright 2018 Mauldin Economics